The remaining portions of the surface are covered by mountains

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Canada Goose Online At one time, astronomers believed the surface of Mars was crisscrossed by canal systems. This Canada Goose Jackets in turn gave rise to speculation that Mars was very much like Earth, capable of supporting life and home to a native civilization. But as human satellites and rovers began to conduct flybys and surveys of the planet, this Canada Goose Outlet vision of Mars quickly dissolved, replaced by one in which the Red Planet was a cold, desiccated and lifeless world. Canada buy canada goose jacket Goose Online

However, over the past few decades, scientists have come to learn a great deal about the history of Mars that has altered this view as well. We now know that though Mars may currently be very cold, very dry, and very inhospitable, this wasn’t always the case. What’s more, we have come to see that even in its current form, Mars canada goose store and Earth actually have a lot in common.

Between the two planets, there are similarities in size, inclination, structure, composition, and even the presence of water on their surfaces. That being said, they also have a lot of key differences that would make living on Mars, a growing preoccupation among many humans (looking at you, Elon Musk and Bas Lansdorp!), a significant challenge. Let’s go over these similarities and the difference in an orderly fashion, shall we?

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In terms of their size and mass, Earth and Mars are quite different. With a mean radius of 6371 km and a mass of 5.971024kg, Earth is the fifth largest and fifth most massive planet in the Solar System, and the largest of the terrestrial planets. Mars, meanwhile, has a radius of approximately 3,396 km at its equator (3,376 km at its polar regions), which is the equivalent of roughly 0.53 Earths. However, it’s mass is just 6.4185 x 10 kg, which is around 10.7% that of Earth’s.

Canada Goose online Artistic representation of the orbits of Earth and Mars. Credit: NASASimilarly, Earth’s volume is a hefty 1.08321 x 1012km3, which works out 1,083 billion cubic kilometers. By comparison, cheap Canada Goose Mars has a volume of 1.6318 x 10 km (163 billion cubic kilometers) which is the equivalent of 0.151 Earths. Between this difference in size, mass, and volume, Mars’s surface gravity is 3.711 m/s, which works out to 37.6% of Earths (0.376g). Canada Goose online

In terms of their orbits, Earth and Mars are also quite different. For instance, Earth orbits the Sun at an average distance (aka. semi major axis) of 149,598,261km or one Astronomical Unit (AU). This orbit has a very minor eccentricity (approx. 0.0167), which means its orbit ranges from 147,095,000km (0.983 AU) at perihelion to 151,930,000km (1.015 AU) at aphelion.

Canada Goose sale At its greatest distance from the Sun (aphelion), Mars orbits at a distance of approximately 249,200,000 million km (1.666 AU). At perihelion, when it is closest to the Sun, it orbits at a distance of approximately 206,700,000 million km (1.3814 AU). At these distances, the Earth has an orbital period of 365.25 days (1.000017 Julian years) while Mars has an orbital period of 686.971 days (1.88 Earth years). Canada Goose sale

Canada Goose Jackets However, in terms of their sidereal rotation (time it takes for the planet to complete a single rotation on its axis) Earth and Mars are again in the same boat. While Earth takes precisely 23h 56m and 4 s to complete a single sidereal rotation (0.997 Earth days), Mars does the same in about 24 hours and 40 minutes. This means that one Martian day (aka. Sol) is very close to canada goose coats on sale single day on Earth. Canada Goose Jackets

buy canada goose jacket Earth’s axial tilt (or obliquity) and its relation to the rotation axis and plane of canada goose clearance orbit. Credit: Wikipedia CommonsMars’s axial tilt is very similar to Earth’s, being inclined 25.19 to its orbital plane (whereas Earth’s axial tilt is just over 23). This means that both are differentiated between a dense metallic core and an overlying mantle and crust composed of less dense materials (like silicate rock). canada goose clearance sale However, Earth’s density is higher than that of Mars 5.514g/cm3 compared to 3.93 g/cm (or 0.71 Earths) which indicates that Mars’ core Canada Goose Parka region contains more lighter elements than Earth’s. buy canada goose canada goose jacket

Canada Goose Parka Earth’s core region is made up of a solid inner core that has a radius of about 1,220km and a liquid outer core that extends to a radius of canada goose outlet about 3,400km. Both the inner and outer cores are composed of iron and nickel, with trace amounts of lighter elements, and together, they add to a radius that is as large as Mars itself. Current models of Mars’ interior suggest that its core region is roughly 1,79465 kilometers (1,11540mi) in radius, and is composed primarily of iron and nickel with about 16 17% sulfur. Canada Goose canada goose deals Parka

Both planets have a silicate mantle surrounding their cores and a surface crust of solid material. Earth’s mantle consisting of an upper mantle of slightly viscous material and a lower mantle that is more solid is roughly 2,890 km (1,790 mi) thick and is composed of silicate rocks that are rich in iron and canada goose coats magnesium. igneous rocks) and granite (rich in sodium, potassium, and aluminum).

cheap Canada Goose Artist’s impression of the interior of Mars. Credit: NASA/JPLComparatively, Mars’ mantle is quite thin, measuring some 1,300 to 1,800 kilometers (800 1,100 mi) in thickness. Like Earth, Canada Goose online this mantle is believed to be composed of silicate rock that are rich in minerals compared to the crust, and to be partially viscous (resulting in convection currents which shaped the surface). The crust, meanwhile, averages about 50 km (31 mi) in thickness, with a maximum of 125 km (78 mi). This makes it about three times as hick as Earth’s crust, relative to the sizes of the two planets. cheap Canada Goose

canada goose clearance Ergo, the two planets are similar in composition, owing to their common status as terrestrial planets. Naturally, it is the differences that are most apparent when comparing Blue Earth to the Red Planet as the nicknames would suggest. Unlike other planet’s in our Solar System, the vast majority of Earth is covered in liquid water, about 70% of the surface or 361.132millionkm (139.43 million sq mi) to be exact. canada goose clearance

canada goose The surface of Mars is dry, dusty, and covered in dirt that is rich iron oxide (aka. rust, leading to its reddish appearance). However, large concentrations of ice water are known to exist within the polar ice caps Planum Boreum and Planum Australe. In addition, a permafrost mantle stretches from the pole to latitudes of about 60, meaning that ice water exists beneath much of the Martian surface. Radar data Canada Goose sale and soil samples have confirmed the presence of shallow subsurface water at the middle latitudes as well. canada goose

As for the similarities, Earth and Mars’ both have terrains that varies considerably from place to place. On Earth, both above and below sea level, there are mountainous features, volcanoes, scarps (trenches), canyons, plateaus, and abyssal plains. The remaining portions of the surface are covered by mountains, deserts, plains, plateaus, and other landforms.

buy canada goose jacket cheap Mars is quite similar, with a surface covered by mountain ranges, sandy plains, and even some of the largest sand dunes in the Solar System. It also has the largest mountain in the Solar System, the shield volcano Olympus Mons, and the longest, deepest chasm in the Solar System: Valles Marineris. buy canada goose jacket cheap

Earth and Mars have also experienced many impacts from asteroids and meteors over the years. However, Mars’ own impact craters are far better preserved, with many dating back billions of years. The reason for this is the low air pressure and lack of precipitation on Mars, which results in a very slow rate of erosion. However, this was not always the case.

Mars buy canada goose jacket cheap has discernible gullies and channels on its surface, and many scientists believe that liquid water used to flow through them. By comparing them to similar features on Earth, it is believed that these were were at least partially formed by water erosion. Some of these channels are quite large, reaching 2,000 kilometers in length and 100 kilometers in width.

uk canada goose Color mosaic of Mars’ greatest mountain, Olympus Mons, viewed from orbit. Credit NASA/JPLSo while they look quite different today, Earth and Mars were once quite similar. Earth has a dense atmosphere composed of five main layers the Troposphere, the Stratosphere, the Mesosphere, the Thermosphere, and the Exosphere. Mars’ is very thin by comparison, with pressure ranging from 0.4 0.87 kPa which is equivalent to about 1% of Earth’s at sea level. uk canada goose

canada goose uk black friday Earth’s atmosphere is also primarily composed of nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%) with trace concentrations of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gaseous molecules. Mars’ is composed of 96% carbon dioxide, 1.93% argon and 1.89% nitrogen along with traces of oxygen and water. Recent surveys have also noted trace amounts of methane, with an estimated concentration of about 30 parts per billion (ppb). canada goose uk black friday

uk canada goose outlet Because of this, there is a considerable difference between the average surface temperature on Earth and Mars. On Earth, it is approximately 14C, with plenty of variation due to geographical region, elevation, and time of year. The hottest temperature ever recorded on Earth was 70.7C (159F) in the Lut Desert of Iran, while the coldest temperature canada goose black friday sale was 89.2C ( 129F) at the Soviet Vostok Station on the Antarctic Plateau uk canada goose outlet.